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Posted by DennisPew on Dec 30th, Posted by DennisPew on Dec 31st, Posted by DennisPew on Jan 1st, Posted by DennisPew on Jan 2nd, Posted by DennisPew on Jan 5th, Posted by DennisPew on Jan 6th, Posted by DennisPew on Jan 7th, Posted by DennisPew on Jan 8th, Posted by DaltonDox on Jan 8th, Moore, Robert Leonard Sherraton. IV, Part II, pp. Thursday, 12th February. Corthell, M. The object and scope of this paper should be clearly stated at the outset.

The object is to discuss the question of the feasibility of making an enlarged water-way from the great agricultural and manu- facturing centres of the West, bordering on the Great Lakes, and tri- butary to them, to the sea ports on the Atlantic, and to the com- mercial ports of the Old World. By an enlarged water-way is meant one capable of transporting freely, and with the least possible delays, the largest freight carriers now to be found upon the Great Lakes.

Any project for a commercial route that will not transport economically and with speed vessels weighing, with their cargoes, net tons, with a draught of 20 feet, will be at once eliminated from this discussion.

It would be a waste of time and of public thought to propose, or even dwell upon, any project that is not fully abreast of the commercial times. Again, let it be under- stood at the outset, that no narrow channel, even with the draught of 20 feet, is to be considered as at all adequate for the wants of com- merce, or in consonance with the principles of this discussion.

Care- ful and thorough investigation, comparing the cost of transportation by the present methods of rail and barge and ship canals, has made it evident that nothing but unrestricted channels of the very largest dimensions for laden vessels of large tonnage will at all compare with the celerity, economy and other and numerous advantages of transport- ation by rail, particularly in the United States and Canada.

A glance over the history of the last half century will show that all water-way channels of an artificial nature have been far behind the demands of the rapidly increasing commerce and tonnage of vessels of Between the Great Lakes and Atlantic. This has been appreciated by the commercial men most conversant with the conditions, but to the general public the necessity for larger channels has not always been apparent, and appeals for appropriations by Governments for such enlarged channels have been met with opposition.

Without regard to state or national lines, commercial men of Can- ada and of the northwest of the United States have generally been in accord on the subject of an enlarged water-way to the Atlantic seaboard.

As long ago as a National Ship Canal Convention was held at Chicago, and delegates from all parts of the United States were in attendance. The special object of this Convention was to advocate the enlargement of the canals between the Valley of the Mississippi and the Atlantic. In it was urged by an able advocate of water-way enlargement that the commerce of the Northwest had increased to so great a magni- tude, that it had outgrown the Erie Canal and demanded a through route, not only to the Atlantic seaboard for its vessels, but to Liver- pool ; and it was asked : ” Why should the lake cities with their wealth and resources not import for themselves and transact their own business?

The ocean is the prerogative of no state of the Union, and the West will seek the channel which conducts its commerce with the least cost and delay. To obtain this has been the dream of commercial men during the last three-quarters of a century. That it has not been realized is due largely to the fact, that the natural water-way lies through two countries that have, as poli- tical divisions, nothing in common.

There has not existed the unioa of action necessary to fully carry out the great projects desire by commerce. These projects have therefore never been taken up as a connected whole and pushed forward to legitimate conclusions. It is well known that between the important ports on Lakes Michigan and Superior and Liverpool there are over four thousand miles of water navigation, and that only about 71 of them are re- stricted by natural obstacles in the channels.

The object of this paper is to ascertain, if possible, how these natural obstacles placed here and there in the pathway of commerce may be removed, and steamships may be built on the Great Lakes to ply between their ports and the ports of the Atlantic seaboard and of the Old World.

The discussion must not be limited to certain special questions, but must canvass the entire situation, and, if pos- sible being given the privilege of selection , point out the best route and give convincing evidence of its superiority. The question is not one that interests engineers alone, and there are other than engineering principles involved. We are led at once into an important commercial discussion and into the whole history of the great Northwest, particularly of the vast country tributary to the Great Lakes and the St.

Lawrence River. It has to be borne in mind, also, that artificial lines of transportation — that is, constructed highways of commerce — have covered the country in every direction ; that the methods of transportation upon these constructed highways have been vastly improved over those of a quarter of a century ago, and that still greater improvements will be made in the near future.

We shall, therefore, be obliged to take up the subject something as follows : — 1st. Its historical features, showing the development of commerce and the increasing capacity of the channel-ways by water and by land; 2nd. The physical conditions of the present and proposed routes ; 3rd. The financial and political questions involved ; 4th. The commercial features of the subject. In reference to the historical, a brief sketch will be of interest, show- ing the changes in the dim history of the past made in the Great Lakes, adapting themselves finally to present conditions for the benefit of man.

Briefly, though not perhaps bearing directly upon our main subject, a sketch will be given of the commercial improvement south- ward of the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico. We will then take up the present canals and channels built between the Great Lakes and the Atlantic seaboard in relation to their history ; the history of the rail- road system and the growth of railroad transportation will be briefly outlined. It will be necessary, also, to give a brief history of the harbour improvements upon the Great Lakes, and then in some detail the history of commerce shown by the increasing size of vessels, the increase in tonnage and the movement seaward on the Great Lakes of the productions of the Northwest.

A history, also, of the gradual reduc- tion in freight rates, both by railroads and canals on East and West routes, must be given. It will be necessary to trace briefly the growth in population, productions and commerce of the country tributary to Between the Or eat Lakes and Atlantic. In discussing the physical features it will be necessary to state the topo- graphical conditions of present and proposed routes, with estimates of costs and the capacity of these routes when completed, and give a comparison of the length of routes now existing and projected.

The author having found it necessary to discuss the feasibility and desira- bility of constructing at certain points on the routes ship railways, a general sketch and brief argument in favour of the practicability of such a method will need to be given, and a comparison made between this method and that by ordiuary canals and railroads. The financial and political subject will embrace the question of what it will cost each of the two Governments to carry out the plans pro- posed, or the cost to private companies of constructing the proposed routes; and under this subject the relations of the two Governments to each other, so far as relates to commerce, must be briefly stated.

In discussing the commercial features it will ba necessary to predict the effects upon the various large ports of the Great Lakes and the St. Great and astonishing changes have taken place in comparatively recent geological times in the basins of the Great Lakes. There are well defined high water marks to indicate, at least, that the three great Northwestern lakes were probably feet higher than they are to- day ; that there was a still greater lake, now Lake Winnipeg ; that the immense overflow from all these lakes flowed southward to the Gulf of Mexico ; and that great areas of country now inhabited and cultivated by man were at that time submerged to a great depth.

The great valleys of the Illinois River, the Minnesota River, and the Upper Mississippi as well, now occupied by comparatively small streams, prove conclusively that at a comparatively recent period there flowed southward great volumes of water, and that Lake Winnipeg drained southward, although now draining northward.

A hypothesis was advanced, and an endeavour made to sustain it, by the late General Warren, to account for this remarkable change in the drainage of the 36 Corthell on Enlarged Water-Way continent.

He attributed it to a great cyclic change in the con- tinental slopes which depressed the northerly part of the continent and raised the southerly, as, for instance, the Florida Peninsula, as well as Cape Cod and other formerly submerged portions of the Atlantic Coast. This great southerly current of the vast interior basins of fresh water of the continent was hemmed in on the south by an ancient barrier, which evidently crossed the Mississippi near Grand Tower, Either by this means or by the changes in the continental slopes, the waters were drained from the land, and the conditions were slowly changed until we have the Great Lakes of to-day.

At Chicago is the lowest line in the cross-section of the trough or ” thalweg ” through which the waters of the lakes flowed southward. The bottom of this trough is only about 8 ft. At this location has been built within the last half century the second city of the continent, and at this point, connecting the lake with the tributaries of the Mississippi River, there was projected in a canal to the Illinois River.

It was proposed by one of the earliest pioneers — Joliet — to dig a canal across the Chicago Divide for commercial and military purposes. In Albert Gallatin, secretary of the Treasury of the United States, spoke of the national character of this proposed water- way. In the first comprehensive report on internal communication, DeWitt Clinton and Gouverneur Morris in to urged the ” proposed ship canal ” as an extension of the Erie Canal to the Mis- sissippi, in order to open up water communication by the lakes from the Hudson River to the Gulf of Mexico.

The Congress of the United States assisted in the project, and made a land grant of , acres in for the construction of the work. The first canal was opened for navigation in In the State of Illinois provided for its completion ; it was completed by the city of Chicago for drainage pur- poses in July, , but the flow through it proved insufficient for the purpose, and in the State required the city to erect pumping machinery of a capacity of not less than 60, cubic feet per minute, which was put into operation in The original canal was six feet deep, sixty feet wide at surface, thirty-six feet wide at bottom in earth, and forty-six wide in rock, with locks, one hundred and ten feet long, eighteen feet lift and six feet on the miter sills.

The rapid growth of the city requires a much more adequate drain- Between the J nut Lakes and Atlantic. This is necessary to prevent the pollution of the only source of its water supply, and to carry the lewage away from the city as quickly as possible. A channel for drain- age purposes as well as for navigation purposes has been authorized by the State Legislature.

Nearly the entire area of the city has, under the State law, been org mized into a drainage district. The law requires and this requirement it may be stated was demanded by the towns and cities located along the Illinois River a continuous flow of not less than , cubic feet per minute, with a current not exceed- ing three miles an hour and , cubic feet per minute, when the population of the district draining into the channel exceeds 1,,, with a requirement for a still larger volume when the population exceeds the number last named.

It is specified that the water shall not be less than eighteen feet deep through the channel, and that the width of the channel shall not be less than one hundred and sixty feet at the bottom. By a joint resolution the Legislature requests the United States Government ” to aid in the construction of a channel not less than feet wide and 22 feet deep, with such a grade as to give a velocity of 3 miles per hour from Lake Michigan at Chicago to Lake Joliet, a pool of the Des Plaines River immediately below Joliet, and to project a channel of similar capacity and oot less than 14 feet deep from Joliet to La Salle, all to be designed in such manner as to per- mit future development to a greater capacity.

The normal growth of the city will, no doubt, make the population as great as this before the year The large quantity of water to be sent through this channel into the Illinois River Valley will, it is expected, raise the low water level of the Illinois River about 7 feet, and that of the Mississippi River at St.

Louis at least one foot, and probably six inches at Cairo at the junction with the Ohio River. On the Mississippi River itself the United States Government is expending large sums of money in deepening and rec- tifying the channel for navigation, with the ultimate purpose of obtain- ing a minimum depth of 10 feet at low water between New Orleans and Cairo, a distance of about miles by the course of the river. As is well known, it has expended a large amount of money in remov- ing the obstructions at the mouth of the Mississippi, and has created by the works there a channel 30 feet deep between the river and the Gulf of Mexico.

This result was obtained in , and the channel has 38 Corthell on Enlarged Water-Way increased rather than diminished in size since that day through the jettied channel. As incidentally of interest, it may be stated that the United States Government is about to connect the navigable waters of the Illinois River with those of the Mississippi River by a canal across the country from Hennepin on the Illinois River to Rock Island on the Mississippi River. This is not to be a ship canal but a boat and barge canal.

The depth on the miter sills of the locks is to be 7 feet, the width at surface of the water 80 feet, and the locks are to be feet by 30 feet.

There will be 37 of these locks. The height to be surmounted from Hennepin going westward to the summit in a dis- tance of 20 miles is feet. The difference in level between this summit and the Mississippi River at Rock Island is feet, the length of the canal will be 77 miles.

The plans are made for the work, and con- struction is expected to begin soon. One question in relation to the proposed drainage and water-way channel between Chicago and the Mississippi River is, what effect, if any, will the abstraction of so large a volume of water from Lake Michigan have upon the level of that lake and of Lake Huron and upon the volume flowing through the Detroit River into Lake Erie? This is an international question, and should be briefly considered in connection with the general subject which we are discussing.

On September 8, , a paper by Mr. George Y. Wisner, civil engineer, was read before the Western Society of Engineers, entitled : ” Levels of the Lakes as affected by the proposed Lake Michigan and Mississippi Water-way. Wisner had had at that time about 20 years’ experience on the rivers, harbours and lakes of the Northwest, and was connected with the Great Lakes surveys.

The facts which he gave and his discussion of the subject were reviewed by several hydraulic engineers of the country. This discussion in printed form accompanies the present paper for the purpose of information. It is not intended here to do more than to state the general opinion on the subject as given by those who took part in the discussion. The opinion as stated by Mr.

Wisner was that ” probably the low water level of the lake would never be affected to exceed 2- in. The lowest stage occurs in Winter when navigation is closed. Lawrence rapids below Ogdensburg from 10 to 16 feet, adding from 6 to 8 per cent, to the free channel of the river. The question was considered at that time, and was referred to the United States Engineer Department, and the conclusion from the investigation was, that the effects would extend to no great distance, and that the level of Lake Ontario would not be impaired.

The deepening at the Lime Kiln Crossing of the Detroit River where the depth has been increased from 13 to 20 feet, and at the St. We may, therefore, dismiss any fears that may exist in regard to the deleterious effects of this channel-way upon the harbours and the connecting water-ways of the lakes.

Taking up again, after this diversion, the general features of our subject, with the intention of following it through in its logical order, we should look upon the Great Lakes, so called, or really inland seas of fresh water of immense magnitude, as simply the enlargement of the St.

Lawrence River into which they pour their surplus waters. This chain of lakes, or the river, has its source in Eastern Minnesota at the head of St. Louis River, and almost coincident with the source of the Mississippi and the Red River of the North. The river ends at Cape Gasps’ at the head of the Gulf of St. We are contemplating the most magnificent inland navigation in the world. The basin of its drainage is , square miles. Lake Superior, the largest body of fresh water on the globe, has an area of 31, sq.

It is miles in length and miles in breadth, with a maximum depth of about feet. Its surface is feet above mean high tide of the ocean. The outlet of this lake is the St. Mary’s River, 55 miles in length. The difference of elevation between Lake Superior and Lake Huron is 22 feet, of which 18 feet is in the St.

Mary’s Rapids which are one half mile in length. Lake Huron is 40 Corthell on Enlarged Water- Way miles long, miles broad, with a maximum depth of feet, and is feet above sea level. The area of this lake varies, by different authorities, from 15, square miles to 23,, depending upon what areas of adjacent bays are included. Its area is 22, sq. Lake Huron discharges southward through the St.

Clair River, 33 miles in length, Lake St. Its maximum depth is feet. It is feet above tide and is feet above Lake ntario, which is the next enlargement eastward of the St.

Lawrence chain. The Nia- gara River between these two latter lakes is 33 miles in length ; Lake Ontario, the most eastern of the lakes, is miles long, 54 miles in width, and has a maximum depth of feet, and is feet above the sea.

Its area is sq. From the city of Kingston at the eastern end of Lake Ontario to the ocean the distance is miles, though Cape Gasp-. Law- rence River, is miles from the ocean. The St. Lawrence between Ogdensburg and Montreal is obstructed by rapids at several places, which have been improved either by remov- ing the obstructions in the natural channels or by flanking them with artificial canals. From Montreal to the Gulf of St.

Lawrence a navigable depth for ocean vessels exists by nature, except at a few points where the channel has been improved by dredging to over 27 feet and to ample width.

The improvement in the St. Lawrence has been made by and at the expense of the Canadian Governm nt. The historical features will embrace a sketch of each of the following constructed works : the St. A sketch of the railroad history will be briefly given. The Map Plate II shows the present and proposed rout. Commonly called the Sault Ste. As early as , the project of building a ship canal around the Falls of St.

Mary’s River was discussed in the Legislature of the State of Michigan. The matter was brought before Congress in , but was opposed, one of its opponents — the distingushed Henry Clay — speaking of it as ” a work beyond the remotest settlement in the United States, if not in the moon.

The first step taken by the General Government of the U. Mary’s River, on which to build the work. The conditions were that the canal should be at least feet wide with a depth of 12 feet, with locks feet long and 60 feet wide. The canal was opened to commerce in ; the locks two in number were feet long and 70 feet wide. The prism of the canal had been changed from a uniform width of feet to a width varying from feet at the upper entrance to feet at the narrowest part and feet immediately below the locks, and the depth from 12 feet to 16 feet at a mean stage.

A new lock had been constructed feet long and 80 feet wide with 17 feet of water on the miter sills. These dimensions, however, proving inadequate for the rapidly increasing size and draught of vessels, Congress in provid- ed for a still larger lock, based upon a navigation of 20 feet depth through the canal and its approaching channels.

The new lock is to be feet long between the gates and feet wide, with 21 feet depth of water on the miter sills. The lock overcomes a height of 18 feet.

This lock is now under construc- tion. A canal through what is called the St. In the channel was deepened to 16 feet by dredging a width of feet on each side of the channel axis. Here also it was found necessary to deepen and enlarge the channel for the enlarging commerce.

The project now contemplates a double row of sheet piling to a depth of 26 feet along; the channel face of each of the old dikes, dredging the area between the dikes to a depth of 20 feet, and continuing the channel above and below the canal to the same depth in the river and in the lake. The history of this important artificial water-way connecting Lakes Erie and Ontario, by flanking Niagara Falls and surmounting a height of about feet, is too varied in its nature and has too many details to burden this paper with more than a brief summary.

It is nearly three-quarters of a century since the building of this canal was taken under serious consideration. The first project was to build a canal and railroad combined, that was in , but the railroad fea- ture was dropped, and the work began with wooden locks feet long, 22 feet wide, with 8 feet of water on the miter sills.

Water was let into the canal in , and two vessels were taken from Lake Ontario to Port Robinson on the Welland River in that year. The financial embarrassments of the Company, however, compelled it to obtain a grant from the Canadian Government, one of the requirements of which was the extension southward to Lake Erie on nearly the same line as now exists. The canal was open to the passage of vessels in The channel was narrow as well as the locks. In the Government appropriated some money towards the enlargement and improvement Between the Great Lakes and Atlantic.

The estimated width of the straight parts of all the reaches was to be not less than 26 feet. This enlargement fully doubled in capacity both the prism and locks of the original design.

In another enlargement more than trebled the size of , the width being feet at the bottom. The tonnage of vessels that could pass through the canal at that time was fully six times greater than that which could pass through the original canal in There were at that time 27 locks, each feet by 45 feet.

But these dimen- sions proved entirely inadequate to the size of vessels, and another en- largement took place, the locks of which are feet by 45 feet with 14 of water on the miter sills. These are the dimensions of to-day. The length of the canal is now 26f miles. There are three guard gates and 25 lift-locks.

The total rise, or lockage, is f feet. This canal, or series of canals, and open navigation of rivers and lakes, is mentioned simply for the reason that at times in the past it has been suggested as a possible route for a large ship canal. This navigation is a series of disconnected water stretches, extending from Trenton at the mouth of the Trent River at the Bay of Quinte, Lake Ontario, to Lake Huron, but this route has never been used for anything except local traffic, as it has a depth of but 5 or 6 feet.

The entire length of the route is about miles. The beginning of the work dates back to The total lockage of the Trent Valley route is feet. Their success is built upon the belief that the printed product is the core of the photography business as well as the core of the users lives. Welcome to the Fundy Designer album design tutorials! Our goal is to help you design an entire album in about 15 minutes. These tutorials will help you get there in no time.

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